According to the U.S. Small Business Administration, 90 percent of the 21 million small businesses in the U.S. are family-owned, but less than one-third of family-run companies succeed into the second generation, while only half of that make it to the third. Most often, the lack of a proper succession planning is to blame.
Proper business succession planning is particularly vital in the Northeast where taxes are so high.
Let's assume that an unmarried NJ decedent (Jane) has a company worth $5,000,000 at the time of her death. Without looking at Jane's other assets, I can tell you that her heirs have a potential federal estate tax liability of close to $1,350,000 plus a NJ Estate Tax liability of almost $400,000 for a total tax liability of close to $1,750,000. If she had no issue or parents living, this would also be subject to a $750,000 New Jersey inheritance tax. These taxes could decimate a small company at a time when the key person involved is not around.
The benefits of proper planning are countless.
At a minimum, proper strategy will help you minimize taxes, maximize control and provide a clear path for continuity of the business. Planning an exit strategy is important as soon as you go into a business. This includes planning for death, divorce or a sale upon retirement.
Some popular planning techniques include:
- Setting up an entity structure (LLC, C Corporation, S Corporation, Partnerships, etc.);
- Purchasing Life Insurance (combined with Buy-Sell Agreements);
- Creating agreements limiting control of potential takers to the business;
- The use of promissory notes;
- Selling or gifting ownership in the business to family members; and
- Selling or gifting ownership in the business to other entities or trusts that will benefit family members.
One of the most important aspects of proper planning is gaining the ability to maximize the amount that you can pass down to your heirs through the use of Valuation Discounts.
When a person has a small business, it is often difficult to sell. The IRS recognizes this lack of marketability. Additionally, as many small business owners get on in years, they are not as involved in running the business. The IRS also recognizes this lack of control.
It is not uncommon to have restrictive agreements in place that will allow an owner to pass on his or her interest with a one-third discount for lack of marketability PLUS another one-third discount for lack of control. Discounts are very specific to each business and a proper appraisal is a MUST.
So how does it work?
Let's go back to our example above. Let's assume that Jane has one child, Dave, who is 35 years old and has shown some interest in the business. Ten years ago, Jane sets up an entity, let's say an LLC, with a restrictive operating agreement. As a result, the appraisal comes back and states that there is a 1/3 discount for lack of marketability. Jane can transfer Dave $1,012,000 of this company without any out of pocket gift tax consequences. Without the appraisal, this would result in a transfer of 20% of the company. With the appraisal, Jane could transfer as much as $1,518,000 of the LLC (a little over 30%) without gift taxes. Additionally, Dave could buy another 20% of the company with a promissory note at the lowest rate available for tax purposes. Let's say a ten year note of $666,666 at 6% interest. Finally, Jane is in good health, so for the next 10 years she uses her annual exclusion amount to gift Dave another $12,000 worth of the company annually. (Since annual appraisals would be expensive, let's assume we don't discount this.)
The result is that upon Jane's death 10 years later, her 100% interest in the company, which started at $5,000,000 company, has been reduced as follows:
1) Through the lifetime gift to Dave, her interest is reduced to a 70% interest, worth $3,500,000;
2) Through the promissory note, her interest is reduced just under 50%, with a value of just under $2,500,000.
3) Through the annual gifting, her interest in the business is reduced to $2,380,000.
Upon Jane's death her $2,380,000 interest will receive a 1/3 discount for lack of marketability and another 1/3 discount for lack of control. This will result in a tax valuation of approximately $1,060,000. After we add back in the $666,666 that she received for the 20 interest plus another $220,000 for interest payments, she will pass with a taxable estate of about $1,950,000.
Accordingly, upon Jane's death, her estate will not be subject to any federal estate tax liability. Additionally, the NJ Estate tax liability will be reduced to $96,000. This is a tax savings of over $1,600,000 - which far outweighs the costs involved in such preparation.
Obviously, there are many different ways to structure this type of transaction, but they are usually based upon the same methodology. The numbers and techniques involved will depend upon the individual needs of the client. For example, if Dave were not responsible or had no interest in running the business, Jane could give him his shares in trust. If Jane had a business partner, this structure could be done for each partner and combined with a buy-sell agreement funded by life insurance.